We are all familiar with maintaining our lab instruments, but how often do we perform maintenance on our lab methods or SOPs?
In the upcoming weeks, we are proud to announce the release of our latest application note regarding concentration dependence in protein viscosity. In this app note, Dr. Stacey Elliott gathered viscosity data for Bovine Gamma Globulin (BgG) formulations over the full concentration range, including therapeutic levels ≥ 100 mg/mL, using the VROC®Initium. The solution buffer included sucrose which is a common additive to enhance stabilization during freeze-drying and storage. Relative viscosity versus concentration curves were fit with the Ross-Minton equation which is a frequently used analysis tool for protein formulations.
To view application note, click below!
According to Cell Press, "Royal jelly is produced in [two different] glands of worker bees, one that produces the protein in a neutral pH and one that produces fatty acids that can reduce said pH when the two secretions" come together (Cell Press).
For a honeybee, royal jelly is a crucial diet for the first couple days for all bees. And for honeybee larvae to become queen, the larvae must be fed and be surrounded by royal jelly for it to morph successfully. However, because queen larvae, "are too big to fit into the cells of the hive's honeycomb," they are able to hang upside down in the queen's cell anchored with the royal jelly (Cell Press). So, what allows this royal jelly to acquire these properties?
Turns out, royal jelly is not always thick and sticky. In a recent study, researchers proposed that the viscosity of a royal jelly were dependent the particle size of a protein found in royal jelly (known as royalactin, or MRJP1) was directly correlated to the pH level found inside. The study conveyed that there was a noticeable size difference within the MRJP1 jelly when exposed to a purifier at pH 4 and at neutral (pH 7). For instance, "Most purification protocols are standardized at pH 7, [which yielded] a strange, runny consistency [within the jelly]" whereas when maintained between pH 4 and pH 5, the viscosity of the jelly seemed gelatinous and almost adherent (Cell Press). The precise pH affects the overall viscosity of royal jelly, which is an essential component in providing the optimal environment for the queen bee to develop in her early stages. If the pH levels were outside 4~5, the royal jelly would lose its heavy, sticky properties and would not be able to hold the queen larvae.
Back in 1927, Australia’s University of Queensland physicist Thomas Parnell started what is now recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest running lab experiment. Dr. Parnell wanted to examine the viscosity of pitch, a tar like substance, by observing the speed at which it flows from a funnel into a jar. Since the pitch was first poured in 1927, only nine drops have fallen, with the last one occurring in April 2014.
This long running experiment has applications that remain relevant to high viscosity polymers and liquids seen in today’s applications. One such application is in 3D inks which can have viscosities greater than 50,000cP.
Not many people besides rheologist and scientist think much about viscosity, but it plays a very important roll in geology and geography. Check out this NASA article and next time you look at the landscape you might be thinking about viscosity.
Ok, here’s the scene...An explorer is traipsing through the jungle, visibility is low due to the dense vegetation, he’s chopping away at the vines and plants when suddenly he enters to clearing.
*Lu's Corner is a new concept hosted by our Technical Specialist, Lu Lu. Lu has been a Technical Specialist with RheoSense for over 2 years. Through meticulous customer relationship development and continuous exploration of new applications, Lu has been able to provide a level of outstanding customer service and support.
What do we talk about when we talk about viscosity? A series stories of viscosity in life.
Story One - Cosmos and Cosmetics
Did you know that even a deadweight machine that is capable of applying 4,448,222 Newtons or 1 million pounds of force?